[1]冯正直,徐慧敏.战争心理损伤形成与防护:基于心理学视角[J].第三军医大学学报,2020,42(16):1579-1585.
 FENG Zhengzhi,XU Huimin.War psychic impairment in military personnel: mechanism and its prevention in a psychological perspective[J].J Third Mil Med Univ,2020,42(16):1579-1585.
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战争心理损伤形成与防护:基于心理学视角(/HTML )
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《第三军医大学学报》[ISSN:1000-5404/CN:51-1095/R]

卷:
42卷
期数:
2020年第16期
页码:
1579-1585
栏目:
专题报道
出版日期:
2020-08-30

文章信息/Info

Title:
War psychic impairment in military personnel: mechanism and its prevention in a psychological perspective
作者:
冯正直徐慧敏
陆军军医大学(第三军医大学):医学心理系,研究生院
Author(s):
FENG Zhengzhi XU Huimin
Faculty of Medical Psychology, 2Graduate School, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China
 
关键词:
心理损伤军人心理健康战争
Keywords:
psychic impairment military mental health war
分类号:
R395.1; R821.2
文献标志码:
A
摘要:

战争心理损伤(war psychic impairment)是指战争中的人-机-环(即军人与武器装备、军事作业环境的关系)对参战人员的身心压力,通过生理、心理、文化和社会道德等方面引起不良心理反应与心理功能失调(心理耗竭)。以前的研究更多关注战争所致生理损伤,很少甚至没有关注心理损伤;主要切入点是军事学、精神病学和应激医学等,缺乏从心理学视角的探讨。研究发现战争心理损伤表现为恐惧、耗竭、愧疚、痛苦、仇恨等;其心理影响因素包括心理距离、服从权威、组织行为和身心素质等;主要通过战场环境刺激引起“过度心理应激反应”和“合理化与接纳失败”两个心理过程起作用造成损伤;采用脱敏、建立条件反射、否认和合理化等策略能够减轻心理损伤。未来我军应针对战争心理损伤的理论体系、心理选拔、军事训练方法、防治关键技术等方面进行研究。

Abstract:

War psychic impairment refers to the psychological reactions or mental dysfunction (psychological depletion) in military personnel caused by physical and psychological stresses from the battlefield environment, which has physiological, psychological, cultural, social and moral impacts on the personnel. Previous studies of war-related injuries focused on physical rather than psychological impairment of the individuals and addressed these issues mainly in terms of military science, psychiatry and stress medicine, while studies based on a psychological perspective remain scarce. This present study examines the psychological cost of wars, the manifestations, the factors affecting the psychological impairments, the psychological processes that mediate the impairment, and the prevention of such impairment from the perspective of psychology. The manifestations of war-related psychological impairment include fear, exhaustion, feeling of guilt, pain and hatred. The psychological factors contributing to the impairment include psychological distance, obedience to authority, organizational behavior as well as physical and mental qualities of the individuals. Two psychological processes mediate the impairment, namely the excessive psychological stress response because of the stimulation in the battlefield environment and the rationalization and acceptance processes. War psychic impairment can be reduced through such strategies as desensitization, establishing conditioned reflexes, denial and rationalization. Researches should be conducted to establish the theoretical system and address the issues including psychological selection, military training and the prevention and control measures against war psychic impairment.

更新日期/Last Update: 2020-08-17