[1]张鸿,陈炜,刘玉馥,等.某综合医院684例医务人员职业暴露案例的回顾分析[J].第三军医大学学报,2018,40(03):264-269.
 ZHANG Hong,CHEN Wei,LIU Yufu,et al.Occupational exposure of medical staffs from a general hospital: a retrospective analysis of 684 cases [J].J Third Mil Med Univ,2018,40(03):264-269.
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《第三军医大学学报》[ISSN:1000-5404/CN:51-1095/R]

卷:
40卷
期数:
2018年第03期
页码:
264-269
栏目:
公共卫生与预防医学
出版日期:
2018-02-15

文章信息/Info

Title:
Occupational exposure of medical staffs from a general hospital: a retrospective analysis of 684 cases
 
作者:
张鸿陈炜刘玉馥舒逸平金浩龙
陆军军医大学(第三军医大学)第二附属医院医院感染控制科
Author(s):
ZHANG Hong CHEN Wei LIU Yufu SHU Yiping JIN Haolong

Department of Nosocomial Infection Control, Second Affiliated Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, 400037, China

关键词:
医务人员职业暴露流行病学防控措施
Keywords:
medical staffs occupational exposure epidemiological characteristics control and prevention measures
分类号:
R181.31; R192; R197.3
文献标志码:
A
摘要:

目的     分析医务人员职业暴露流行病学特点。方法    收集2012年至2016年684例医务人员职业暴露信息,根据其流行病学特点,分析职业暴露原因,提出防控措施。结果    工作年限不超过5年的工作人员(76.46%)易发生职业暴露;护士(65.64%)是主要的人群;手术室的发生密度最高;第3季度和每日10:00-10:59是高发季节和时段。锐器伤(79.39%)是主要的暴露方式;处理治疗后污物、拔针、手术操作是职业暴露的高危操作。随访发现1例HCV感染,感染率为0.15%。结论     护理人员与低年资工作人员是医务人员职业暴露的高危人群,手术室是职业暴露的高发地点,每年第3季度与每日交接班之前时段是职业暴露的高发季节和高发时段。构建安全工作环境,合理分配人力资源、优化工作流程、加强职业安全培训、规范操作过程、建立职业暴露“多学科协作(multidisciplinaryteamwork,MDT)”快速反应机制或可预防职业暴露发生。
 

Abstract:

Objective     To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of occupational exposure in medical staffs. Methods    The data of occupational exposure among medical staffs in a hospital from 2012 to 2016 were collected. According to the epidemiological characteristics, the main causes of occupational exposure were analyzed in order to bring forward to preventive and control measures. Results    The medical staffs with length of working shorter than 5 years (523/684, 76.46%) were prone to occupational exposure, and the nurses (64.65%) were the highest risktaking group. Operation room was the most susceptible and centralized place. The third quarter was the main time of occupational exposure of the year, and 10:00 to 10:59 was the main duration during the day. Management of medical wastes, pulling out the needle, and surgical operation were high-risk operations for occupational exposure.  One staff who exposed to HCV risk conditions developed acute HCV infection, with an infection rate of 0.015%. Conclusion    Nurses and fresh staffs are high-risk population of occupational exposure. Operating room is high-risk area, the third quarter and the duration before shifting are main season and duration of occupational exposure. Therefore, safer working environment, rationale human resource, optimized workflow, well training for occupational safety and protection, standardized operative procedure and rapid response mechanism based on multidisciplinary-teamwork may effectively prevent occupational exposure.

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更新日期/Last Update: 2018-02-13