|Table of Contents|

Terahertz spectroscopy for lung cancer detection: a preliminary study



Research Field:
Publishing date:



Terahertz spectroscopy for lung cancer detection: a preliminary study


LIU Dingyuan SHI Changcheng ZHOU Xiangdong

Department of Respiratory Diseases, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038; Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 400714, China


terahertz spectroscopy non-small cell lung cancer absorption rate

O433.4; R730.49; R734.2

Objective       To preliminarily explore the application of terahertz spectroscopy in the early detection of lung cancer by comparing the differences among lung cancer tissues, paracancerous tissues, and normal lung tissues with terahertz spectroscopy and screen the suitable terahertz frequency for specific diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods       Thirty groups of lung tissue samples from nonsmall cell lung cancer patients at stage of Ⅰ to ⅢA were collected, and each group contained lung cancer tissue, paracancerous tissues, and normal lung tissue from the same patient. These lung cancer specimens included 17 cases of adenocarcinoma, 10 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 2 cases of large cell lung cancer, and 1 case of sarcomatoid carcinoma. Terahertz spectroscopy from 0.2 THz to 2.0 THz was used to detect these tissue samples, and the absorption coefficient was compared. Results       ① The absorption coefficient was significantly higher in the lung cancer tissues than the normal lung tissues. ② Terahertz spectroscopy at a frequency of 0.8 to 1.4 THz may have the specific diagnostic value of lung cancer. Conclusion      Since the absorption rate is higher in the lung cancer than the normal lung tissue, which is suggested that terahertz spectroscopy may be regarded as a novel non-invasive diagnostic approach for lung cancer. The specific diagnostic value of the terahertz frequency may be 1.4-2.0 THz for lung cancer.


[1]PARKIN D M, PISANI P, FERLAY J. Global cancer statistics[J]. CA Cancer J Clin, 1999, 49(1): 33-64, 1. DOI:10.3322/canjclin.49.1.33.
[2]刘毅, 初向阳. 多原发非小细胞肺癌诊断、治疗及预后的系统性综述[J]. 解放军医学院学报, 2016, 37(8): 901-904. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-5227.2016.08.022.
LIU Y, CHU X Y. Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of patients with multiple primary non      small cell lung cancer: A systematic review [J]. Acad J Chin PLA Med School, 2016, 37(8): 901-904. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.20955227.2016.08.022.
[3]DAVIES G, LINFIELD E. Bridging the terahertz gap[J]. Physics World, 2004, 17(4): 37-41. DOI:10.1088/2058-7058/17/4/34.
[4]FERGUSON B, 张希成.太赫兹科学与技术研究回顾[J].物理, 2003, 32(05), 0-0. DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:03794148.2003.05.002.
FERGUSON B, ZHANG X C. Materials for terahertz science and technology[J]. Physics, 2003,    32(05), 0-0. DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:0379-4148.2003.05.002.
[5]OH S J, KANG J, MAENG I, et al. Nanoparticleenabled terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis[J]. Opt Express, 2009, 17(5): 3469-3475. DOI:10.1364/oe.17.003469.
[6]MENG K, CHEN T N, CHEN T, et al. Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffinembedded brain glioma[J]. J Biomed Opt, 2014, 19(7): 077001. DOI:10.1117/1.JBO.19.7.077001.
[7]TRUONG B C, TUAN H D, FITZGERALD A J, et al. Breast cancer classification using extracted parameters from a terahertz dielectric model of human breast tissue[J]. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2015, 2015: 2804-2807. DOI:10.1109/EMBC.2015.7318974.
[8]WAHAIA F, VALUSIS G, BERNARDO L M, et al. Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques[J]. Journal of Molecular Structure, 2011, 1006(1-3):77-82.
[8]WAHAIA F, VALUSIS G, BERNARDO L M, et al. Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques[J].  Journal of Molecular Structure, 2011, 1006(1): 77-82. DOI: org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2011.05.049.
[9]MIURA Y, KAMATAKI A, UZUKI M, et al. Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections[J]. Tohoku J Exp Med, 2011, 223(4): 291-296. DOI:10.1620/tjem.223.291.
[10]RAHMAN A, RAHMAN A K, RAO B. Early detection of skin cancer via terahertz spectral profiling and 3D imaging[J]. Biosens Bioelectron, 2016, 82: 64-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2016.03.051.
[11]YU C, FAN S, SUN Y, et al. The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: a review of investigations to date[J]. Quant Imaging Med Surg, 2012, 2(1): 33-45. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2223-4292.2012.01.04.
[12]FITZGERALD A J, BERRY E, ZINOV’EV N N, et al. Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies[J]. J Biol Phys, 2003, 29(2-3): 123-128. DOI:10.1023/A:1024428406218.
[13]JOSEPH C S, YAROSLAVSKY A N, NEEL V A, et al. Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers[J]. Lasers Surg Med, 2011, 43(6): 457-462. DOI:10.1002/lsm.21078.
[14]ASHWORTH P C, PICKWELL-MACPHERSON E, PROVENZANO E, et al. Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer[J]. Opt Express, 2009, 17(15): 12444-12454. DOI:10.1364/oe.17.012444.
[15]BRUEHLMEIER M, ROELCKE U, BL-UENSTEIN P, et al. Measurement of the extracellular space in brain tumors using 76Brbromide and PET[J]. J Nucl Med, 2003, 44(8): 1210-1218.
[16]周纯武. 影像学在肿瘤诊治中的作用[J]. 癌症进展, 2006, 4(2): 110-110.
ZHOU C W. The role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of tumor[J]. Oncol  Prog, 2006, 4(2): 110-110. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-1535. 2006.02.004.
[17]李晗, 余晨. 太赫兹波对肾癌组织的光谱检测[J]. 红外与激光工程, 2016, 001(5):  160-165.
LI H, YU C. Terahertz spectral detection in human renal tissue[J]. Infrared  Laser  Eng, 2016, 001(5): 160-165. DOI: 10.3788/IRLA201645.0525001.
[18]WAHAIA F, KASALYNAS I, SELIUTA D, et al. Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques[J]. Second International Conference on Applications of Optics and Photonics, 2014. DOI:10.1117/12.2063463.
[19]HOU D, LI X, CAI J, et al. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues[J]. Phys Med Biol, 2014, 59(18): 5423-5440. DOI:10.1088/00319155/59/18/5423.
[20]QIAO W, YANG K, THOMA A, et al. Dielectric relaxation of HCl and NaCl solutions investigated by terahertz timedomain spectroscopy[J]. Journal of Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 2012, 33(10): 1029-1038. DOI:10.1007/s107620129920z.
[21]KNAB J R, CHEN J Y, HE Y, et al. Terahertz measurements of protein relaxational dynamics[J]. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2007, 95(8): 1605-1610. DOI:10.1109/JPROC.2007.898906.
[22]ZHANG W, BROWN E R, RAHMAN M, et al. Observation of terahertz absorption signatures in microliter DNA solutions[J]. Applied Physics Letters, 2013, 102(2): 023701. DOI:10.1063/1.4775696.


Last Update: 2017-09-04